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Petrified Forest National Park(石化森林國家公園)遊記 (2015.11.22)

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Petrified Forest National Park(石化森林國家公園)位於美國亞歷桑那州(Arizona)偏東北兩個小城Holbrook Navajo之間的40號州際道路(I-40)南北兩側,總面積218,533英畝(885平方公里)Petrified Forest (石化森林)1906128日被劃為國家保護區(National Monument),而彩繪沙漠(The Painted Desert)區則在稍後幾年才併入。1962129日整個區域成立為國家公園。
這裏是世界上最大、最絢麗的化石林集中地。數以千計的樹幹化石倒臥在地面上,直徑平均在1公尺左右(最大一棵近三公尺),長度在15~25公尺之間,最長達40公尺。在完整的樹幹化石周圍,還有許多破碎零散的化石木塊。這些石化的樹木年輪清晰、紋理明顯,宛如碧玉瑪瑙般,在陽光之下熠熠發光,使人眼花繚亂,歎為觀止。
 
據公園的介紹 ,大約在二億二千萬年前三疊紀的後期,此地是一片沼澤地,許多巨樹沉入沼澤厚厚的淤泥中。經過千萬年的時光,水中的二氧化矽等化學物質,慢慢地將樹幹轉變為石英質的木化石;再經過千萬年的地殼變動,沖積風化,這些木化石終於露出了地面。

Petrified-forest-map
 Petrified Forest National Park map

公園包括一個南北走廊連接的二個大區域:北區(I-40以北)被稱為彩繪沙漠(Painted Desert)區,在本區有各種顏色的遼闊荒野景觀。主要觀景點有Tiponi PointTawa PointPainted Desert InnKachina PointChinde PointPintado PointNizhoni PointWhipple PointLacey PointRoute 66幾處。
Tiponi Point

Painted Desert Panorama From Tiponi point
Painted Desert Panorama From Tiponi point 1
Painted Desert Panorama From Tiponi point 
Painted Desert From Tiponi point 2
Painted Desert From Tiponi point 1
Painted Desert From Tiponi point 16
Painted Desert From Tiponi point 10
Painted Desert From Tiponi point 3
Painted Desert From Tiponi point 

IFrameTawa Point
Painted Desert Panorama From Tawa point
Painted Desert Panorama From Tawa point


IFramePainted Desert Rim Trail
這條步道連接下個觀景點Kachina point全長0.5沿著台地邊緣行走,全程俯瞰the Painted Desert,步道無多大起伏,十幾分鐘可走完全程,輕鬆好走。

Painted Desert From Tawa point 4

Painted Desert Inn Museum(彩色沙漠旅館博物館)
IFrame位於Kachina point,興建於20世紀20年代,原名Stone Tree House,原先是用石化森林裡面的木化石建築而成,因為後來結構並不太強,所以30年代後期又被Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC)改建成Pueblo Revival Style的房子;該建物在1987年被指定為國家歷史地標(The national historic landmark),現在該建物是單純的博物館,沒有旅館的食宿服務。

Painted Desert Lnn, Petrified Forest National Park
Painted Desert Lnn, Petrified Forest National Park

Kachina Point
Painted Desert Panorama From Kachina Point 1
Painted Desert Panorama From Kachina Point 
Kachina Point, Petrified Forest National Park
Painted Desert From Kachina point 5
IFrame
Painted Desert From Kachina Point 1
Painted Desert From Kachina Point 2
Painted Desert From Kachina Point 


Chinde Point
Painted Desert From Chinde point1
Painted Desert From Chinde Point
Painted Desert From Chinde Point

IFramePintado Point
Pintado Point, Petrified Forest National Park
Pintado Point, Petrified Forest National Park
Painted Desert Panorama From Pintado Point
Painted Desert Panorama From Pintado Point
Pilot Rock from Pintado Point, Petrified Forest National Park
Pilot Rock from Pintado Point, Petrified Forest National Park

IFrameNizhoni Point
Painted Desert From Nizhoni Point
Painted Desert From Nizhoni Point 1
Painted Desert From Nizhoni Point 

IFrameWhipple Point
Painted Desert Panorama From  Whipple Point
Painted Desert Panorama From  Whipple Point
Painted Desert From  Whipple Point
Painted Desert From Whipple point 1
IFramePainted Desert From  Whipple Point


Lacey Point
Painted Desert Panorama From Lacey Point
Painted Desert Panorama From Lacey Point
Painted Desert From Lacey point 1
Route 66
Route 66 遺址有放一台老車的殘骸,我們沒停留下來參觀。
IFrame-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
參觀完公園北區的彩繪沙漠(Painted Desert)後,沿園區的景觀道路南下,經過I-40上方的高架橋後即進入公園的南區。公園南區包括五顏六色的地形和幾處木石化的集中地。幾處美洲印第安人刻在岩石上的文字站點在南區也被找到。南區主要站點有有Puerco PuebloNewspaper RockThe TepeesBlue MesaAgate BridgeJasper ForestCrystal ForestRainbow Forest MuseumGlant LogsLong LogsAgate House等景區。
Puerco Pueblo
此點有一條0.3哩的步道,參觀Puerco Pueblo遺址。
Puerco Pueblo 是由Pueblo族人祖先建立,Puerco Pueblo像沉默的證人,是西元1400年前人類在這裡生活的證據。

Puerco Pueblo 9
Puerco Pueblo 
Kiva(Puerco Pueblo)
Kiva(Puerco Pueblo)
Gallery of the Past(Puerco Pueblo) 1
Gallery of the Past(Puerco Pueblo) 
Lizard in the park 1
Lizard in the park 
Desert Cottontail 2
Desert Cottontail 

Newspaper Rock--岩石上的符號是一部早期住民的文化史,就如同其他所有有印地安人足跡的地方,上面記載了過去現在或未來的事情,有雕刻的石頭離我們很近,肉眼就可看到。
Newspaper Rock, Petrified Forest National Park 1
Newspaper Rock 3
Newspaper Rock, Petrified Forest National Park 

IFrameIFrameIFrameThe Tepees
景點附近都是這種圓圓的小土丘,有著不同的色彩。

Colors in The Tepees Area, Petrified Forest National Park 3
Colors in The Tepees Area, Petrified Forest National Park 2
Colors in The Tepees Area, Petrified Forest National Park 1
Colors in The Tepees Area, Petrified Forest National Park 


Blue Mesa
有一條一哩長的環行步道由台地下到荒蕪的谷地,在沉積層中就近參觀許多植物和動物的化石。IFrame

Blue Mesa Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 3
Blue Mesa Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 4
Blue Mesa Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 5
Blue Mesa Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 
Blue Mesa Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 1
Blue Mesa Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 2
Blue Mesa Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 


Agate Bridge(瑪瑙橋)
AIFramegate Bridge不是公園裡最壯觀的景點,但非常有趣,一根長距木化石的下面土石被雨水沖蝕中空而橫跨在山溝兩端,形成一座獨木橋,因為它是瑪瑙色,所以才叫做瑪瑙橋吧!目前它下面已用混凝土結構支撐起來,防止其斷裂。

Agate Bridge, Petrified Forest National Park
Agate Bridge 1
Agate Bridge, Petrified Forest National Park

Jasper Forest
IFrame站在高點俯瞰滾落在山谷下的木化石。

Jasper Forest, Petrified Forest National Park 1
Views from Jasper Forest 5
Jasper Forest, Petrified Forest National Park 2Jasper Forest, Petrified Forest National Park 
 
Crystal Forest
IFrame有一條0.75 (1.2 公里)的環行步道,近距離觀賞木化石;步道旁的地上有許多從木化石掉下來的寶石,不可隨意亂撿,拿走任何石頭都是違法的。

Petrified wood exposed along the Crystal Forest Loop Trail at Petrified Forest 10
Petrified wood exposed along the Crystal Forest Loop Trail at Petrified Forest 19
Petrified wood exposed along the Crystal Forest Loop Trail at Petrified Forest 2
Petrified wood exposed along the Crystal Forest Loop Trail at Petrified Forest 


Rainbow Forest Museum
博物館裡展示分佈於全美各州的木化石標本,還有兩塊經打磨拋光處理的展示品,值得進去參觀。

Rainbow Forest Museum
Rainbow Forest Museum


IFrameGiant Logs
位在Rainbow Forest Museum後方,有一條0.4(0.6 公里)的環行步道,此步道的特色是有著此公園裡最巨大、顏色最鮮艷的木化石,其中有一棵225百萬年前的稱之為“Old Faithful”的全株木化石,直徑達9.5(2.9公尺)。

Giant Logs trail
Giant Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park
Petrified wood exposed along The Giant Logs trail 5
Giant Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park
Old Faithful at Giant Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park
“Old Faithful” at Giant Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park



IFrameAgate HouseIFrameTrail
Agate House  Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 1
Agate House  Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 

Agate HouseIFrameTrail單程約一哩,登山口在Rainbow Forest Museum 停車場,終點是Agate HouseIFrame遺址;
Agate House  Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 3
Agate House  Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 2
Agate House  Trail, Petrified Forest National Park

Agate HouseIFrame900年前就地取材用當地的木化石所建的一個野外小屋,有八個房間,該屋在20世紀30年代重建過。
Agate House  2
Agate House  1
Agate House  

Long Logs Trail
IFrame
Long Logs Trail全長1.8哩,是公園裡最大的木化石集中地之一,許多古老的木化石堆積在貧瘠的惡地上,此步道前0.6哩和Agate HouseIFrame Traile共用同一登山口,和Agate HouseIFrame Traile分岔以後是一條0.6哩的環狀步道。

Long Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 4
Long Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 3
Long Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 1
Long Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 2
Long Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 5
Long Logs Trail, Petrified Forest National Park 

 

一般遊客參觀完南區後可以開車沿原路北上,由I-40州際公路離開,也可以選擇在南門不遠處的180公路離開園區。我們選擇後者西北行,經過小城Holbrook直奔下一旅遊景點觀光小鎮Sedona
 
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