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塵世退隱,縱情山林。笑看人世間----- 勾心鬥角、爭名奪利; 匆匆忙忙、庸庸碌碌; 紛紛擾擾、喧喧鬧鬧。
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怡潔旅美遊記(十)--班德利爾國家遺址保護區(Bandelier National Monument) (2017.07.09)

Bandelier National Monument entrance sign
Bandelier National Monument entrance sign


班德利爾國家遺址保護區(Bandelier National Monument)位於美國新墨西哥州傑梅茲山脈(Jemez Mountains)山腳下的弗瑞合列士峽谷 (Frijoles Canyon),距離東南邊的聖塔菲市(Santa Fe)約45哩的車程。該保護區是一處佔地超過 33,000英畝 (13,355公頃)的岩石地景,區內高聳的崖壁上遍佈著像蜂巢似具有1,000年歷史的阿那薩吉人 (Ancestral Pueblo)洞穴遺址;此地景之造成乃源自於1100多萬年前﹐距此西北約十四哩處的赫麼茲 (Jemez) 火山爆發的岩漿奔流擠壓﹐造成了壯觀的峽谷,再經長期大自然的侵蝕,在高聳的凝灰岩崖壁上形成了蜂巢似的洞穴。
Rocky and rugged landscape at Bandelier National Monument 1
Rugged landscape in Bandelier National Monument
Rugged landscape in Bandelier National Monument



班德利爾國家遺跡保護區(Bandelier National Monument)成立於1916年,該保護區係以一位人類歷史學家安道夫.班德利爾 (Adolph Bandelier) 的名字來命名﹐Adolph Bandelier出生於瑞士﹐成長於伊利諾州,畢生致力於美洲原住民族遺址的探索研究與保護。

到此園區可先買本導覽小冊子(一元美金)﹐裡面附有步道的簡圖及解說,參觀時可將步道旁標示的號碼與導覽本上的號碼相對照,有助於瞭解地形及此景觀當年的用途。園區內主要的環形步道總長 1.25 哩,走完約需一小時。
Visitor Center at Bandelier National, Monument 2
Visitor Center at Bandelier National, Monument
Gift shop at Bandelier National Monument 1
Gift shop at Bandelier National Monument
Prairie dog on the roof
Prairie dog on the roof



保護區內岩壁上有很多天然的大大小小的洞穴,這些洞穴早期被印第安人的祖先用來作為居住用;
Historic Pueblo dwellings in Bandelier National Monument 1
Historic Pueblo dwellings in Bandelier National Monument
Wooden ladder leading to the Talus Houses
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument (8)
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument (9)
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument (7)
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument (6)
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument (3)
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument


他們在洞穴的裡面和洞穴前都留下了石頭結構的建築,包括用於宗教禮儀的建築 kivas。
Indian Ruins, Bandelier National Monument
Historic Pueblo dwellings in Bandelier National Monument 2
Historic Pueblo dwellings in Bandelier National Monument
Ruins in Bandelier National Monument 3
Ruins in Bandelier National Monument 1
Ruins in Bandelier National Monument 2
Ruins in Bandelier National Monument



這些洞穴有些是開放給遊客參觀,參觀這些洞穴必須爬上一些長長的木梯子,普遍來說洞穴都很低矮狹小,據說印第安人的祖先個子不大可能是真。
A wooden ladder leading to a cave dwelling at the Bandelier National Monument (2)
A wooden ladder leading to a cave dwelling at the Bandelier National Monument (5)
A wooden ladder leading to a cave dwelling at the Bandelier National Monument (3)
A wooden ladder leading to a cave dwelling at the Bandelier National Monument
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument (5)
Cliff Dwellings at the Bandelier National Monument



這些在岩壁洞穴下的重建建物已和現代Taos地區的現代建築Adobe很接近!
Reconstructed cliff house at Bandelier National Monument (2)
Reconstructed cliff house at Bandelier National Monument (1)
Reconstructed cliff house at Bandelier National Monument


Kiva

在環形步道上﹐第一個見到的就是一個大 Kiva 的遺跡。
Kiva at Bandelier National Monument 3
Kiva at Bandelier National Monument 2
Kiva at Bandelier National Monument


早期住民是從地面向下鑿坑住於地下﹐稱為Pit House,坑頂用六根木柱支撐﹐地面開個洞口﹐置木梯可下去。後來他們改住地上﹐用泥土混著木與石頭烘成的磚坯建成 Adobe 房子﹐但是地下坑屋仍做宗教祭祀儀式、重大決策及傳遞知識的場所,稱之為“Kiva”。

Tyuonyi

Tyuonyi意為“會議場所”,它的建物有二至三層,400多個房間,並且居住了大約400年,在十六世紀中葉結束。
Tyuonyi pueblo ruins in Frijoles Valley, Bandelier National Monument
Tyuonyi pueblo ruins in Frijoles Valley, Bandelier National Monument

Rows of viga holes show that Long House was once a two to three story structure 1
Rows of viga holes show that Long House was once a two to three story structure 2
Rows of viga holes show that Long House was once a two to three story structure
Canyon viewing from Bandelier's Long House
Canyon viewing from Bandelier's Long House


走完還行步道如要續前往裡面的Alcove House則右轉沿溪谷再往裡面走,來回約一哩,因需爬升140呎長的四個木梯及石階,約需再花一小時,如不想走則左轉走回遊客中心。
The sign at Alcove House trailhead
Alcove House步道口之警示牌


我們續沿溪谷前往Alcove House參觀。
Picture 1240
Alcove House, Bandelier National Monument 1
Alcove House, Bandelier National Monument
Ladder to Alcove House (1)
Ladder to Alcove House (2)
Ladder to Alcove House (4)
Ladder to Alcove House
Alcove House, Bandelier National Monument (3)
Alcove House, Bandelier National Monument (2)
Alcove House, Bandelier National Monument (4)
Alcove House, Bandelier National Monument
Reconstructed kiva at Alcove House 2
Reconstructed kiva at Alcove House 1
Reconstructed kiva at Alcove House 3
Reconstructed kiva at Alcove House

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